CORRECT NUTRITION FOR SPORTS
This article is not about “sports nutrition” ie anabolic drugs and various dietary supplements, information about which can be found on specialized resources, and the positive effect of which on the body causes us some doubts, namely, how to eat regular food during sports.
The human body should receive a sufficient amount of carbohydrates and proteins daily, as well as a certain amount of fats, vitamins, minerals and plenty of water. The effectiveness of sports is associated with a significant activation of protein synthesis in working muscles. The formation of the necessary protein structures that provide specific muscle function is associated with increased gene activity and requires complete protein nutrition. In people experiencing great physical exertion, non-essential and essential amino acids in the diet should be contained in certain proportions. Unfortunately, our usual diet does not ensure the intake of a sufficient amount of easily digestible proteins, especially amino acids, in the required ratio. Therefore, with increased muscle activity, there is a need for additional protein nutrition or the use of special products of high biological value (with the optimal content of essential amino acids, vitamins, mineral salts, etc.).
The main function of proteins is to form and repair the tissues and cells of the body. Carbohydrates – the main source of energy necessary for the body with great physical exertion. Fats are the second most important source of energy. Exercise requires more protein, carbohydrates, and fat than it does.
With high physical exertion, it is advisable to use 5-6 meals a day. Such nutrition is more physiological. The first breakfast is 5%, the second breakfast – 30%, additional food after training – 5%, lunch – 30%, afternoon tea – 5%, dinner – 25% of the daily calorie content. The volume of food should not be too large: 70 kg of body weight from 3 to 3.5 kg of food per day. Fruits and vegetables should make up 10-15% of the diet.
On sports days, breakfast and lunch should be nutritious. In the afternoon, at approximately 2-hour intervals, you need to eat several times. This should be a food high in carbohydrates, it will give strength before starting classes. Drink plenty of water throughout the day, especially in the last hour before class.
Try to eat hard-to-digest foods as little as possible – this is cabbage, beans, lentils, beans, peas, pork and lamb. Such products are best used less often than others and only after training sessions. An important point is the variety of food, as well as high-quality culinary processing of food. After this, ground, boiled, steam meat, mashed legumes, and oatmeal in the form of jelly with milk are easier to digest. Frequent repetition of food and the uniformity of food are undesirable. Neutral soups must be alternated with sour ones. It is advisable to avoid the same side dishes. In a hot climate, calories should be slightly reduced. In cold climates, it is necessary to increase protein intake, but the amount of fat consumed should be reduced.
Food before class
The body can not digest large amounts of food during exercise, so it is unreasonable to eat right before classes. But to play sports, you need a lot of energy. Carbohydrates are the best source of energy, so they should be included in breakfast or lunch 3 hours before the start of classes or eat in small portions no later than an hour before they start. Carbohydrates are rich in products such as: oatmeal with skim milk, boiled potatoes, crispbreads, crackers, toasts, bread with jam or honey.
Nutrition after sports
If you have worked physically well, but haven’t eaten for 5 hours, your blood glucose level drops so much that exercise is excessive. If there are no obvious painful sensations, it still negatively affects endurance and the ability to concentrate in the process of training. Try to eat within two hours after class. If exercise suppresses your appetite, eat something high in carbohydrate as quickly as possible. Here are some dishes that are perfect for this: oatmeal cookies, fruit muffins, pasta with vegetables, fish or chicken, baked potatoes with low-fat seasoning, boiled rice and sweet corn salad, fruit salad with oatmeal, vegetable stew.
Carbohydrates are digested at different speeds, so blood sugar levels can rise slowly or quickly.
Starch contained in potatoes, bread and rice gives off its energy slowly, and simple carbohydrates contained in jam, honey, fruits, juices – quickly.
Energy-high-speed foods (raisins, bananas, honey, jam, glucose, sweets, chocolate, sweet cookies, as well as rice, bread, sweet corn.