DOPING IN SPORT
Doping is a special medication used by athletes to forcibly increase the body’s performance during competitive activity or during the training process. The kind of sport for which it is intended affects what properties a particular dope has. In general, the pharmacological effects of these drugs can be completely opposite. As a rule, the appointment of doping occurs in a course, but there are often cases of single use. It all depends on the tasks, as well as the mechanism of action of a particular drug substance.
If you look at the publications of MK IOC, we can conclude that doping is almost freely used in all countries. What are the reasons for such a massive use, a kind of narcotic drugs? It’s all about prizes, fame and money. The mercantile interests of coaches and athletes are gradually expanding and sick organizations, cities and entire countries. About how to use doping correctly, hundreds or even thousands of books have been written. But seldom where it is mentioned that the use of these drugs negatively affects the health of the athlete.
Due to a number of cases involving the use of doping by athletes, which ended in death, the IOC MK was forced to prohibit the use of a number of certain pharmacological preparations, both in training and in competitions.
As for the definition of “doping,” there is still no consensus on what exactly to consider it. And this is important, because the use of doping by athletes can cause certain sanctions and appeals. An approximate definition is as follows: “Doping is a biologically active substance, a method and methods of artificial or forced increase in sports performance, which have various side effects on the body.” Thus, for example, blood doping is not a drug. What he really is? Ordinary blood that was taken from an athlete and processed by special methods earlier, then introduced back into the athlete’s body before the competition to increase the total amount, plus oxygen transport function together with non-specific stimulation due to the breakdown of red and white blood cells.
So, where did the history of doping in sports begin? The history of doping in sports originates from the time when there were no anabolic steroids. The first documented case of doping was recorded in 1865, it was then that special stimulants were used by swimmers from the Netherlands. After the good results of the Dutch in each country, athletes of all disciplines began to try to use these drugs. The first Olympic Games, which took place in 1896, also became the place where doping additives such as codeine and strychnine were successfully used. At the Olympics in 1904, literally from the other side, they got the marathoner Thomas Hicks, who poured a mixture of brandy, codeine and strychnine into his body. But all this was, as they say, pampering, the real era of doping began in 1935, when synthetic testosterone was created. It is believed that Nazi Germany owes this drug for its victories at the 1936 Olympics. Everything repeated when Soviet athletes showed incredible results at the 1952 Olympics. The Americans did not expect such humiliation from their main enemy at that time and also decided to take up the development of androgynous drugs. And you know, they did it. However, testosterone did not suit all athletes, especially athletes.
The fact is that this drug had strong side effects, which in some cases were unacceptable. For example, athletes began to develop secondary male sexual characteristics. Something had to be done, and the question arose of developing new doping drugs. Drugs such as nandrolone, norethandrolone, oxandrolone, oxymetholone and methandrostelone have been created. The latter drug has gained immense popularity. Athletes in many countries began to use this dope almost every day. But these were only flowers. It all started in 1968. In general, the Olympics in 1968 became the most doping in history. It doesn’t matter that in 1967 an Anti-Doping Committee was created, headed by Prince Alexander de Merod – there was still no necessary equipment for determining the exact location of certain drugs in urine or blood. We needed money. And who do you think provided the funds? The answer is simple – USA. The question may arise – “why?”. The thing is that the Americans had equipment that could detect the presence of methandrostenol in the athlete’s urine. And many Soviet teams trained on this drug when the Americans themselves switched to stanozole, an anabolic steroid unknown to the world at that time.