The US dollar index (USDX) is a measure of the value of the US dollar relative to the value of a basket of currencies of the majority of the U.S.’s most significant trading partners, its index is available on the website of The Wall Street Journal.
These factors include the dollar’s purchasing power relative (and relative value) to many major currencies. Second, the country’s economic growth and inflation rate relative, an index of foreign exchange rates is also a factor. Other factors, such as the composition of global reserves, monetary policy, including interest rates, and monetary policy actions. Government fiscal policy, international trade flows, inflation, and Interest rates could also affect the USDX.
The USDX is shown as a percentage of major financial markets, which are tracked by the Bloomberg Global Money Market Index. The chart shows that the US dollar is still the most important currency for international investors, with the dollar at about 85% of these markets. This is large because the international financial market has been relatively stable in the last three years, despite concerns about the euro and other European currencies.
As a result, international money flows and investments have been more stable than in previous periods. However, global funds outflows and dollar inflows have increased strongly over the last few years. Stockholders are more concerned with preserving their wealth and foreign holdings, than with making profits abroad. And, this is the case even if the economy is doing well. Indeed, in 2015, investors in currencies such as the yuan along with the yen are increasingly using their foreign currency earnings to invest in US assets and assets that have a higher yield. To simply put, financial stockholders are spending more of their earnings abroad, but they are not spending all of them.
It is not uncommon for stockholders to hold foreign-exchange earnings in foreign financial firms. While this may be a good strategy for those who are concerned about capital flight, it is less so for the average investor who is concerned that they will not be able to earn enough interest, or that foreign assets will be unavailable to him or her. As such, foreign capital inflowing and outflow are likely to continue for some time. For example, while the Chinese yuan is expected to appreciate in 2016, there is no reason to believe that it will continue to do so. If it did, then those funds flowing out of China would be more than offset by capital coming into each country.
But, if it were to depreciate, capital would flow in, hence causing a capital flow imbalance, even though its currency would continue its decline. China is in this situation, albeit not in an absolute sense. On the flip side, a stronger dollar means lower interest payments for American borrowers. That is, borrowers will pay more interest on their loans to Chinese banks. Multiple factors involved in determining the future of U (US) dollar-denominated assets, as well as how they will perform over time, so it would not make sense to assume that all these factors will remain constant. Nevertheless, given this uncertainty, several entities suspect that global investors will hold off on any significant investments in U-currencies until they have more information.